Category Archives: Design

Design topics related to web app

Separation of Concerns – Data Access Layer

Now that the World of Art database has been abstracted, as an entity data model, we can focus on adding the data access layer to our architecture. This layer will act as an interface to the entity data model. The data access layer will create distance and independence from the data source, for the user interface layer, the business logic layer and the services layer.

The first thing I want to do in the data access layer, is create an abstract interface. The following code snippet illustrates this. As you can see, this is a generic interface. I’m using the System.Collections.Generic class, to declare this as a public interface called IArtWorldCollection, which implements a generic object type signified by “T”. The single purpose of this interface, is to create a generic list or collection of objects, from the World of Art Domain. We will reveal the details on how this is done, when we actually implement this Interface.

The Data Model Layer

As discussed in the last post, we are going to apply a layered architectural structure, to the World of Art web app. The first layer we are going to develop, will be called the Data Model Layer. The purpose of this layer is to achieve a separation of concerns. To create distance and independence, between code supporting the application’s user interface, and code supporting access to the data source.

We will begin by adding an object model to the application. This object model is based on the World Of Art Relational Database, developed in a prior iteration. See Generating Data Model Based on Relational Database, for step by step instructions on generating the data model. As mentioned in previous posts, our data model layer is based on the Microsoft ADO.NET Entity Framework.

Now that the data model is generated, I’m going to display another illustration of the World of Art database diagram, which the data model is bases on. This diagram is more detailed, and shows the properties of each column of the two tables, currently in the database. Also, remember the “one-to-many” relationship between an artist and their works of art. An artist can create one or more works of art. This relationship is illustrated by the key and infinity symbols in the diagram. Please keep this diagram in mind, when we examine the data model diagram, based on this database.

Database Diagram for Data Model

World of Art Database Diagram

The next diagram illustrates the data model, which is based on the World of Art database. I used the Entity Data Model Wizard in Visual Studio 2010, to generate the data model. The data model has two classes, based on the two tables in the World of Art database. The Artist table and the Works of Art table, have been abstracted into two separate classes. The columns of the tables are now represented by the properties of each class. Also, notice how the one-to-many relationship between an artist and their works of art is maintained.

Data Model based on World of Art Database

Data Model based on World of Art database

The Entity Data Model Wizard in Visual Studio 2010, not only generates the entity data model diagram illustrated above, it also generates an entire C# code file, which the diagram is based on. The following image is a class diagram I generated in Visual Studio 2010. It’s based on the WorldOfArt.Designer.cs file which was generated by the Entity Data Model Wizard. As you can see, the wizard actually generated three classes. The one in the middle is the WorldOfArtContext class, it inherits the System.Data.Objects.ObjectContext class. The other two classes are based on the two tables in the World of Art database, and inherit the System.Data.Objects.DataClasses.EntityObject class. Like any typical C# class, they have private members and public properties, along with a wide range of partial methods and event handlers, for updating the tables.

WorldOfArt.Designer.cs Data Model Class Diagram

Class Diagram Based on World of Art Data Model

Finally, lets take a look at the World Of Art solution in Visual Studio, with the newly added Data Model layer. The highlighted folder, in the illustration below, represents the Data Model Layer in the World of Art project solution. The folder contains two files;

  • The WorldOfArt.edmx file, is the data model diagram. It can be viewed and modified, in the Entity Data Model Designer, in Visual Studio.
  • The WorldOfArtDesigner.cs file, is the C# source code of the Entity Data Model.
Data Model Layer in Solution Explorer

Data Model Layer in the World of Art Project Solution

In my next post, I’ll discuss the benefits derived from building a Data Model Architectural Layer, and an Entity Data Model.

Layered Architecture & Separation of Concerns

Now that I have dealt with my philosophical and project management issues, we can get back to improving the design of the World of Art web app. If you recall my previous post on Improving the Design, I identified several objectives for improving the application design;

  • Eliminate the tight coupling of the user interface and data access, by extracting database connectivity and data access, into a separate architectural layer of the application.
  • Design and build an abstracted view of the data access domain.
  • Develop an interface to the data access domain.

A tremendous amount of progress towards meeting these objectives, can be gained by implementing the Microsoft ADO.NET Entity Framework. The Entity Framework provides a means for achieving our design objects. However, the Entity Framework provides even greater benefits;

  • Enables me to program against a conceptual application model instead of programming directly against a relational database schema.
  • Decreases the amount of code and maintenance required for data-oriented applications.
  • Provides freedom to focus more on the problem/business domain issues, and much less on database access and query issues.

Now with all that said, the ADO.NET Entity Framework is no the complete solution for improving the design of our application. The core purpose of our design objectives is to establish a separation of concerns, by creating distance between dissimilar aspects of our code.

Separation of Concerns

Kyle Baley, Donald Belcham and James Kovacs, wrote an excellent series in MSDN Magazine called Extreme ASP.NET Makeover. Part six of this series deals with the subject of separation of concerns.

Another design improvement objective, is to introduce a layered architecture to our design. The traditional layered architecture of a software application, utilizes three basic layers for separating coding concerns;

  • User Interface
  • Business Logic
  • Data Access

Layered Architecture

Applying a layered architectural design to an app is always good practice, because it simplifies each component of the app, and improves maintainability in a way that lends itself very nicely to evolutionary improvements, as opposed to total re-writes. However, applying a layered design to large, complex, enterprise level applications, can introduce other levels of tight coupling which should be avoided.

Hendry Luk wrote a very good piece on this subject. See Software Development Fundamentals, Part 2: Layered Architecture

Jeffrey Palermo also tackles this issue in his series on The Onion Architecture.

Please keep in mind, the concepts covered by Hendry Luk and Jeffrey Palermo, are intended for large enterprise level apps, with complex behaviors and long running life cycles. However, it is good to study and understand these concepts. As developers, it is our responsibility to determine the best practical application of these concepts, based on a desire to satisfy our customer’s needs and our project requirements.

In my next post, we will introduce a Data Model Layer to our application. In this layer, we will utilize the ADO.NET Entity Framework, to create an object model over the World of Art Relation Database.

Improving the Design

As previously posted, The artist content page has been added to The World of Art web app. The Web Form Model was implemented as the foundation for developing this component of the application.

Using the Web Form model, provided a stable architectural software development platform, along with off the shelf software components, which facilitated rapid development and deployment, of the artist content page. If you recall, I used the ASP.Net SQL Data Source Control, to query artist information from the database. However, after spending a little time studying the overall design of the artist page, I do have some concerns regarding the use of the SQL Data Source Control;

  • More consideration should be given to scale, as the size of the artist database is certain to grow much larger.
  • Using the SQL Data Source control is acceptable for small applications. However, as the application grows in size and complexity, we will find this approach is too tightly coupled with the user interface. The current approach will require each web page, that renders dynamic database content, to have its own unique interface to the data source. This introduces some vulnerability to the impact of change. With each web page developed, with this tight coupling to the data source, the impact of future changes to data access requirements increases . As the impact of change increases, so does the level of effort in code maintenance.

In my next post, I will discuss an architectural approach for extracting data access into a separate design layer of the application, thus eliminating this tight coupling with the user interface layer. We will also design and build an abstracted view of the data access domain, like we did with the World of Art Domain. We will then develop an interface to our data source domain. ASP.Net provides some off the shelf components, which make this more sophisticated design, surprisingly easy to implement.

Artist Content Added to The World of Art Web App

The artist page has been added to The World of Art web app. This iteration of development was performed to satisfy the requirements in my previous post. The Artist Page was developed using an ASP.NET WebForm conponent, in Visual Studio 2010. The ASP.NET Web Form model, along with all of the user interface controls integrated into the model, provides a stable platform for rapid appliation development.

Anyone developing on the ASP.NET platform, should join the Microsoft community. This is a community of developers, who are contributing enormous amounts of knowledge, along with tutorials, based on development. At you will also find an entire section devoted to Web Forms

Take a few minutes and see all of the technical details on how the artist content was added to the website.

Some New Requirments

Now that the The World of Art site is up and running, lets add some content from the artist database. Here is a list of requirements for the next iteration of development;

  • Add a page to the site called artist.
  • The artist page will render a list of artists names, and place of birth.
  • The list of artists will be rendered in a grid which can be sorted.
  • There should also be a detailed view of each artist, where visitors can page through information on each artist, one at a time.
  • Prior to rendering the artist page, an automatic request or query for data, should be made to the database server, so that the page is already filled with information when the user navigates to the artist page.

For now, it’s back to Visual Studio, to develop the artist page based on these new requirements. Come back soon to see the results.

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Website Project Template or Web App Project Template

Now that we have the first iteration of the World Of Art domain defined, along with  a supporting database, it’s time to develop a website where the world of art information can be made available for public consumption.

Visual Studio 2010 provides several website and web app templates, which are already built and tested. You can also select an empty project structure and build from scratch.  I prefer to start with a pre-built project template, designed for the type of application I have in mind. This provides a solid foundation to build on, and allows me to focus more on developing for the customer’s domain.  However, one must still be careful when selecting a pre-built template. I found an excellent article called Web Application Projects versus Web Site Projects at msdn.

I decided the web application project structure would be the best choice for the world of art app. Primarily because support of database access is a critical part of the application design. The web application project provides the most flexibility for database access. It also allows me to deploy a pre-compiled application which makes deployment more straight forward.
Selecting a Project Template in Visual Studio 2010

Web Application Template Example
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Defining the App Domain

In order to form an abstracted view of the World of Art domain, I created a class library and class diagram. In Visual Studio 2010, I first created a new project called “ArtWorldObjects”, from the Class Library template. I then added some very simple classes based on the current knowledge of the domain.

World of Art Class Diagram

World of Art Webb App

Basic Requirements

Every software project begins with a basic set of requirements. We will use an agile approach in developing the World of Art web app. Here is a list of the initial requirements for this app.

  • Develop a working website which allows visitors to create a virtual art gallery with exhibits.
  • Registered users will be allowed to upload content featuring their favorite works of art.
  • Users will also have the ability to post information about the works of arts and the artists displayed in their gallery.

What is this all about?